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Trohanis TA Projects

Effective Technical Assistance Practices

Updated September 8, 2022

  1. Fixsen, D., Blase, K., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009). Intensive technical assistance. Retrieved from
  2. Trohanis, P. L. (Ed.). (1982). Strategies for change. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, Technical Assistance Development System.
  3. Beale, B., & Luster, J. N. (2009). A framework for collaborative partnership in providing intensive technical assistance. Southeast Regional Resource Center and Data Accountability Center.
  4. Boone Blanchard S, Ryan Newton J, Didericksen KW, Daniels M, Glosson K. Confronting Racism and Bias Within Early Intervention: The Responsibility of Systems and Individuals to Influence Change and Advance Equity. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 41(1):6-17. doi: 10.1177/0271121421992470
  5. Skelton, S. (2019) Situating my positionality as a Black woman with a dis/ability in the provision of equity-focused technical assistance: a personal reflection, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 32:3, 225-242, DOI: 10.1080/09518398.2019.1576942
  6. Tseng, V. (2012). The uses of research in policy and practice. Social Policy Report, 26(2). Retrieved from
  7. Fixsen, D., Blase, K., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009a). Readiness for change. Retrieved from
  8. Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.
  9. Metz, A., Louison, L., Burke, K., Albers, B., & Ward, C. (2020). Implementation support practitioner profile: Guiding principles and core competencies for implementation practice. Chapel Hill, NC: National Implementation Research Network, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from
  10. Hurth, J. & Goode, S. (Eds.) (2009). Thinking points: A synthesis of ideas about the change process (Topics: An occasional paper on the literature and practice of Technical Assistance). Retrieved from
  11. Metz, A., & Bartley, L. (2012). Active implementation frameworks for program success: How to use implementation science to improve outcomes for children. Zero To Three, March 2012, 11-18.
  12. Office of Special Education Programs (2016). Results driven accountability: Differentiated monitoring and support engagement decisions - DMS Notices. Presentation. Retrieved from
  13. Fixsen, D., Naoom, S., Blase, K., Friedman, R. & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Retrieved from
  14. Trivette, C. (2009). Participatory adult learning professional development strategy: Evidence and examples. Presentation made at the Ninth National Early Childhood Inclusion Institute, Chapel Hill, NC July 15, 2009. Retrieved from
  15. Trivette, C., Dunst, C., Hamby, D., & O'Herin, C. (2009). Characteristics and consequences of adult learning methods and strategies, Research Brief, Volume 3, Number 1. Tots n Tech Research Institute. Retrieved from
  16. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Compassion Capital Fund National Resource Center. (2010). Delivering training and technical assistance. Retrieved from
  17. Kendrick, M., Jones, D., Bezanson, L., & Petty, R. (2006). Key components of systems change. Retrieved from
  18. Gross, B., Jochim, A. & Nafziger, D. (2013). New challenges, new mindsets, new disciplines: Transforming the SEA into a modern performance organization. Retrieved from
  19. Woo, B., DuMont, K., Metz, A. (2019, December 10). Equity at the center of implementation. Center for the Study of Social Policy: Ideas into action. Retrieved from
  20. Metz, A., Albers, B., Burke, K., Bartley, L., Louison, L., Ward, C. & Farley, A. (2021). Implementation practice in human service systems: Understanding the principles and competencies of professionals who support implementation. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance. DOI: 10.1080/23303131.2021.1895401. Retrieved from
  21. Bertram, R., Blase, K. & Fixsen, D. (2015). Improving programs and outcomes: Implementation frameworks and organizational change. Research on Social Work Practice, 25(4), 477-48.
  22. Aarons, G., Hulbert, M. and Horwitz, S. (2011). Advancing a conceptual model for evidence practice implementation in public service sectors. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(1), 4-23.
  23. Langley, G., Moen, R., Nolan, K., Nolan, T., Norman, C. & Provost, L. (Eds.) (2009). The improvement guide: A practical approach to enhancing organizational performance (2nd Ed). San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons.
  24. Kahn, L., Hurth, J., Kasprzak, C., Diefendorf, M., Goode, S., & Ringwalt, S. (2009). The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center model for long-term systems change. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29(1), 24-39, 2009. doi: 10.1177/0271121409334039
  25. Kasprzak, C., Hebbeler, K., & Spiker, D., McCullough, K., Lucas, A., Walsh, S., Swett, J., Smith, B.J., Kelley, G., Whaley, K., Pletcher, L., Cate, D., Peters, M., Ayankoya, B., Bruder, M.B. (2019). A state system framework for high-quality early intervention and early childhood special education. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Retrieved from
  26. Fullan, M. (2002). The change leader. Retrieved from
  27. Fixsen, D., Blase, K., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009b). Concept paper: Developing the capacity for scaling up the effective use of evidence based practices in state departments of education. Retrieved from
  28. Trohanis, P. (2001). Design considerations for state TA systems. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Center, National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System.